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The kalanoro, also called the kotoky or the vazimba, is the only unknown bipedal ape allegedly inhabiting Madagascar. They are described as small, three-foot-tall, human-like primates with large eyes, long fingernails and a flat nose. They are covered in hair and are described as having three digits on their hands and feet. They have a strange call similar to a woman screaming. They are associated with swamps and lakes, usually being reported near them. They eat fish and raw food and live in nests made out of reeds.

Some tribes like the Saklava people, consider the kalanoro to be semi-aquatic, while other tribes like the Bara consider them land animals that live near water. Most sightings of kalanoros occur in the Ankazoabo district, although sightings occur throughout all of Madagascar.

In the book Antananarivo Arrival, G. Herbert Smith wrote of an encounter an acquaintance had with a kalanoro. The witness was camping at night in the forest, watching his campfire, which died down to embers. Suddenly he noticed a figure on the other side of the fire, seemingly warming itself and "enjoying it immensely." Unfortunately for the kalanoro, the witness grabbed a stick and tossed the embers at the creature, causing it to run away in a panic. He described the creature as short in stature and sporting a beard. 

A similar story from the same book, apparently from a different person, described watching two kalanoros, one female and the other male, feeding each other some rice left in the pot of his campsite. Another report from the village of Mahanoro describes kalanoros stealing their food and calling one another at night.

Harry Trumbore's illustration of a kalanoro
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